Session 1: An Introduction

James and Angelika introduced the module and the associated assessments.  The remainder of the session was separated into two parts.


Each student was given 20 minutes to read one of the following articles.

Article 1: Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning: A Literature Review
Article 2: Promoting Digital Skills and Critical Awareness through Online Search and Personal Knowledge Management: A Case Study
Article 3: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in primary education: Opportunities and supporting conditions
Article 4: Teaching with Technology in a future school in Singapore: A mathematics teacher’s experience
Article 5: Understanding digital competence in the 21st century: An analysis of current frameworks
Article 6: Pedagogy-Driven smart games for primary school children

The findings were then presented to the rest of the class.  The following questions/issues were raised:

  • What is digital literacy?
  • Does technology help to motivate and engage students?
  • The importance of teaching methods
  • What is user centred design
  • What is the role of the Digital Divide in all of this?
  • Increasing scores—is that the point of education?
  • Research Methods—how do they influence the outcomes of a study?
  • Blended-method
  • Education is not just schooling – more education happens outside
  • School leavers need to be hand held – can’t self manage


In part 2 the group was tasked with producing an online/interactive timeline of TEL.  Key dates, developments and inventions were identified then added to the software.


Some questions that came up from this process were:

  • what does ‘digital’ mean?
  • how many of these technologies are actually used for learning or within education?
  • what is the goal of technology in education?

The group also began to think about the future of technology going into the realms of sci-fi.  Here’s a PDF of the timeline.

BIG QUESTION:  ‘What is the goal of technology in education?’. Use your personal experience and opinion (and some theory or literature if you want to) to answer the question. Try to also read some of the other responses and respond to those to start a debate.


23 Comments Add yours

  1. uncrushedscot says:

    Hi course colleagues and James and Angelika. Tom here – great session ! enjoyed all the contributions. Looking forward to the course even more now.
    My comment on your question is as follows. Since the 17/18 century “Enlightenment” in Europe, Education was perceived by many as being about modernity, building the capacity to reason, learning to act rationally and the scientific method of discovery. In the west, digital technology has been applied in Education to increasingly meet commercial, institutional and pedagogic goals. Yet our digital world also amplifies global cultural, religious and economic differences. Many are consequently denied opportunities to learn and teach, science is denigrated and free expression contested. In this context, Educational technology has the capacity to be an engine for extending the capacity to think freely, for self-actualisation, self determination, bridging the barriers erected by failed systems. The foundations of a new 21st century global enlightenment.

    Liked by 2 people

    1. I like that you did not only focus on learning with digital technologies, but also with the teaching aspect! Responding to the short conversation we had after class, and this statement: “Educational technology has the capacity to be an engine for extending the capacity to think freely, for self-actualisation, self determination, bridging the barriers erected by failed systems.” I’d like to share this link with you:
      It’s a paper I published earlier this year about the work I completed as part of my MA in 2014. It explores informal learning and learning networks among adults experiencing homelessness in Romania and explores five implications for technology design that should/could be considered when designing for this space. It’s a little out of the way of what you’re interested in (population-wise), but I think the ideas of informal learning and teaching, and to increase the capacity for self-actualisation, determination, and bridging barriers of existing systems are discussed or at least touched upon in the paper.


  2. ursubaba says:

    Let me first of all clarify the meaning of goals from other misconstrue terms (aims and objectives). Goal refer to things achievable over a period of time usually in matter of weeks or months. Therefore the goal of technology in education, is to make teaching and learning more efficient and effective in matter of weeks or months. It is not that teaching can not occur without introduction of technology, just as it used to be in the archaic age. But it will be more: meaningful, realistic, purposeful, adequate, enigmatic, concrete, appealing, attractive, and interesting; when technology is introduced. According to Zais, (1976), in John, (2009); goals are derived from scientific, metaphysical and module contents paradigm. The goal of technology in education is to pave way for a learner centred approach of teaching and learning; which enables learners to be more productive, viable, yielding and responsive within their immediate teaching and learning environment. In addition, the goals of technology in education is to:
    1. emancipate the mind of learners;
    2. make learners more inventive;
    3. make learners find more ease at solving tasks;
    4. create more global relationship and oneness;
    5. spring out wealth for educational institutions and individuals as reward to productivity;
    6. create jobs and employment for individuals;
    7. create fame for inventors;
    8. provide opportunity for promotion to next level or rank (inventors and educational institutions) due to hard work and resilience;
    9. create loop holes (hub) for generational knowledge development for learners and teachers;
    10. enhance global research; and so on (John, 2009).
    However, this does not eliminate the teaching or teacher activities in the classroom; but opens up other avenues for the teacher to carry out researching, monitoring and supervisory functions; instead of being in the fore of the instructional processes every time. For example in this course (EDU 8225), which we are allowed to use the blog as learning tool to connect and network with one another on our own as learners. It does not eliminate the work of our lecturer (Dr James) who taught us yesterday in the lecturer room. I believe the goals of technology in education are numerous and does not aim at causing dilemma to the school curriculum or environment; but makes it more lively and appetising to everyone who wants to learn effectively.

    John, M.R (2009). A New Generation of Goals for Technology Education. Journal of
    Technology Education: Vol.20, No.2 Spring 2009.

    Zais, R.S (1976). Curriculum: Principles and Foundations. New York: Thomas Y. Cromwell
    Company, Inc.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. ursubaba says:

    Greetings to all. How is the Saturday? It is quite sunny too this morning. Isn’t it? I think technology in education is nice? It also seems inventors in the field of “Education” often get into trouble with some policy makers? Kind of ruminating on these thoughts this morning. Have a nice day friends and enjoy the sunshine; while it radiates because it is not going to be there for too long. Have a nice time.


  4. frendiechan says:

    My initial responses
    After the first session we were asked to respond to the question, ‘What is goal of technology education?’
    During the session I learnt about the history of technology education and some of the current learning platforms, like MOOCs, Khan Academy and WordPress ☺.

    During the session there were so many conversations going on at different levels that I found it quite difficult to make meaningful sense of it at times. We had discussions on the purpose of education and schooling, and that teachers want to enhance learning and assist students in self-directed learning by using technology. The question is ‘Can all the learning occur by the use of technology?’ What is the difference between me as a teacher and a blog, or any other forums?

    In my opinion, technology gives learners knowledge and skills, but it does not give you dialogues and discourse where education comes in. I think one of the main differences between a teacher and a blog is the need to cater for huge range of learner diversity. A blog assumes that everybody understands the issues at the same level, whilst a teacher can be sympathetic to the diversity of learner needs. This role of the teacher is similar to the way in which Confucius answered different disciples on the same question about “Ren”, the perfect virtue. He gave different responses, which “reflects the different needs of the different disciples at the time when they asked the question.” ……… He was “engaging with individuals according to their needs and ability”, Li Li, R. Wegerif, (2013). The importance of the teacher is illustrated in teaching students with considerations of their different needs.

    My reflections

    1. The potential of technology in education
    The children are more technology-knowledgeable than their teachers because it is now a part of the youth culture and out of school they freely access the Internet on their personal hand held computers. Many of the teachers are not catching up with the children and are not as technologically literate.

    The use of technology in the classroom is often low level because teachers do not have the time to integrate technology with the curriculum and the diverse needs of the children. They also don’t have the professional knowledge to integrate these. These important practical issues have so far not been discussed with reference to feasibility and the goal of technology in education. It promises so much but can technology fulfil its promise?

    2. The holistic approach to technology to the learning needs of students in Hong Kong
    I found the discussion to be a little remote from the situation that I am used to as a teacher in Hong Kong. (I am not sure if we have to distinguish technology from information technology in our module) We recently have been issued a government’s policy of statement about the use of information technology in education. In the Fourth Strategy on Information Technology in Education, the document identifies five areas in the development of information technology ( (2014).

    (i) enhancing schools’ IT infrastructure and re-engineering the operation mode;
    (ii) enhancing the quality of e-learning resources;
    (iii) renewing curriculum, transforming pedagogical and assessment practices,
    (iv) building professional leadership, capacity and communities of practice;
    (v) involving parents, stakeholders and the community and
    (vi) sustaining coherent development of IT in Education.

    It is interesting that the use of information technology in the educational setting seems to be much wider in Hong Kong than only relating to students. In the first module session we did not address this range of uses of technology in an educational setting. I am interested to appreciate the scope of the question we have been asked ‘What is the goal of technology in education?’

    Li L., Rupert Wegerif
R. (2013) ‘What does it mean to teach thinking in China? Challenging and developing notions of ‘Confucian education’ p22-32, in Thinking Skills and Creativity; Elsevier
    EDB (2014) ‘Fourth Strategy on Information Technology in Education.’


    1. It’s interesting to see how different countries relate to the topic of ‘technology’ and ‘information technology’.
      What I think is that the difference between the two is quite big. With ‘information technology’–particularly as to how the policy paper seems to describe it–is to use it for everything around schools. To make admin easier, connections to parents/guardians better and to have IT development in the school.
      What I think is so great about looking at ‘technology’ as a whole, we can also look at the effects of it to learning in and outside the classroom; how it affects pedagogy, learning, topics of study, collaboration, how it sustains learning.
      Here are some examples of how existing technology is used to change what we see as ‘learning’ or ‘education’
      Phonar Nation:
      Using twitter and ‘meta-classes’ to facilitate discussion with a larger audience on visual storytelling
      Massive open only courses (MOOCS), although widely criticised about quality of content and learning, have made university content a LOT easier to access for everyone around the globe.
      Learning platforms (like blackboard – what we use at this uni and moodle) have made a large impact on how we manage learning and communication between students and teachers. Moodle is open-source and free for anyone to use!
      And here are some examples of weird and novel technologies that do more than simply make the facilitation of learning and access to information easier
      a cool ted talk on building blocks that can teach

      Liked by 5 people

      1. frendiechan says:

        Thank you


      2. ursubaba says:

        This is great video Angelika. Nice one.

        Liked by 1 person

      3. frendiechan says:

        1. Thank you for your response to my blog. However, I still do not understand the difference between technology in education as you define it and the broad use of information technology in schools as the HK Government defines it. It seems to me that there is a little difference between these two perspectives…… and despite these differences my concern is about developing the effective use of technology in education for all children.

        2. According to a press release from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2015), a new approach is definitely needed “to deliver on technology’s potential in schools”. The first OECD PISA assessment of digital skills implies that “schools have yet to take advantage of the potential of technology in the classroom to tackle the digital divide and give every student the skills they need in today’s connected world”. It is supported by the findings documented, OECD (2015) “Even countries which have invested heavily in information and communication technologies (ICT) for education have seen no noticeable improvement in their performances in PISA results for reading, mathematics or science”.

        The trilogy of integrating curriculum, pedagogy and diversity in the context of technology is the key issue. “Ensuring that every child reaches a baseline level of proficiency in reading and mathematics will do more to create equal opportunities in a digital world than solely expanding or subsidising access to high-tech devices and services”, OECD (2015).

        It is evident that the school systems need to find more effective ways to “integrate technology into teaching and learning to provide educators with learning environments that support 21st century pedagogies and provide children with the 21st century skills they need to succeed in tomorrow’s world,” OECD (2015).

        3. I agree with the OECD that “technology is the only way to dramatically expand access to knowledge. To deliver on the promises technology holds, countries need to invest more effectively and ensure that teachers are at the forefront of designing and implementing this change.”

        In the same week, a study being presented to the BERA by Dr Tom Macintyre of the University of Edinburgh, also question whether education technology is being put to the best effect in lessons. His research linked frequent computer usage to lower test scores in spite of the deep incorporation of computers into pupils’ learning. Therefore, the question remains, ‘how can technology be used most effectively to enhance the learning process?’

        Macintyre, T. (2015), “Schools’ use of technology linked to lower pupil test scores,” in BREA Press release. DOI:

        OECD (2015), “New approach needed to deliver on technology’s potential in schools,” in OECD Press Release. Doi:

        OECD (2015), “Forward and Acknowledgements”, in Students, Computers and Learning: Making the Connection, OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI:

        Liked by 1 person

      4. leerobinson84 says:

        Little bits are really cool! I’ve previously used the Korg synth kit they make, to show students how synthesizers are built up. There are some really interesting project ideas on the website too, including a Keytar – YES!

        Liked by 2 people

  5. leerobinson84 says:


    I’m not convinced there is one definitive goal for the use of technology in education. I Think if this were the case, we would only be using a singular piece of technology within our classrooms. Furthermore, I believe that any goals that do exist are fluid, not fixed. For example, goals we had for the use of technology in classrooms in the early 1990s were primarily to get students to understand the technology itself. The technology was there to give students experience of programming, word processing and databases et al. It wasn’t until much later that the technology began being used as a tool for learning across the curriculum.
    In today’s classroom we very rarely, particularly beyond early years, teach the basic use of the technology itself. This is because the students have been exposed to computers, tablets and other electronic devices for so long that they are already well versed in the basic operation, prior to entering a scholastic environment.
    I believe that the goals of technology in the present fall into two distinct categories.
    1. Learner engagement.
    Maintaining learner engagement during lessons has always paramount to teaching professionals. However, with most students now having smartphones fully loaded with a plethora of social media apps and games, it is even more difficult to maintain engagement. Applications such as ‘Nearpod’ help to keep engagement by actively encouraging the use of smartphones within the classroom. It will allow you to broadcast a presentation direct to the students phone. Furthermore, it’s interactive, allowing students to add comments and messages to send back to the teacher in real time.

    2. The teaching of specific, niche, digital skills.
    As both society and industry become more reliant on technology, there are a number of skills, particularly within the creative industries, that have made the switch to digital. Photo editing, video editing and music production are now done primarily (although not exclusively – there are still people taking photo/video on film and people recording music onto magnetic tape) ‘in the box’. the term ‘in the box’ referring to the process taking place entirely within the computer. As the processes of these specialist pieces of software are so complex, it would stand to reason that, in the first instance, students would need to be taught the basic operation in order to realise their creative ideas.

    As for the future goals of technology within education, watch this space…

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thanks for your thoughtful comment, Lee. I would agree with you that goals should be fluid and not fixed. Especially in the 21st century, where technology changes so quickly, it would be difficult to define a single goal and then to work only towards that. I think that would result in a stagnation of digital and technological advancement as new technology that wouldn’t lead to that goal would not be researched enough.
      When you say ‘learner engagement’ do you mean that the only reason for technology in the classroom is only for engagement, and not for bringing content across at all?


      1. leerobinson84 says:

        Hi Angelika, sorry for the late reply…

        I think that using technology to deliver the content is the engagement. If we are not delivering content or facilitating learning with the technology we use, why would we use it?


  6. ursubaba says:

    Good morning guys. Quite cold today? Isn’t it? Leerobinson84 got good ideas; but do you really think: “Students would need to be taught the basic operation in order to realise their creative ideas?”(leerobinson84, 2015); in this 21st century. I think they only need to be monitored and encouraged. “Students” are creatively imbued with infinite capabilities. The “Students” even teach themselves better with the use of technologies nowadays.


  7. Fatma otain says:

    Hi class colleagues
    It wasn’t easy for me to express my feeling about the first lesson. I was exciting and confusing about the aim of this course. I was expected to hear about how to build technology environment in the classroom but interestingly the course was beyond that which made me more enthusiastic for the next class. My comment about the question is as follows:

    Technology has revolutionised modern live and all the schools in the commonwealth would be ready for technology infused environments in order for teachers and students across all disciplines and programs to be able to teach and learn. In doing so they would have access to universal data from anywhere at any time because Schools are linked technologically to other educational institutions, to communities and to the world.
    Some goals of this initiative for students in my opinon are:
    • To prepare students on how to engage with the broader society and teach them skills and competencies to help them achieve in the modern world.
    • To encourage students on becoming independent learners. Students will be able to do research on the web, evaluate web resources and demonstrate other skills workplace
    The goals of this initiative for teachers and faculty staff briefly are:
    • It helps the faculty to expand the methods in which they teach and organize lessons. It also helps in distant learning and also makes lessons apt for students, which have different teaching styles. Educators can improve their teaching skills through online coursework and tutorials; students can take classes not available in their schools.
    • The usage of technology will help in management. It helps in the collection of data, information sharing, analysis, and decision-making.

    Finally, I think no one have the full answer for this question and I totally agree with Lee in his comment.

    Liked by 1 person

  8. ursubaba says:

    Good day guys. I am just reflecting on these two (2)questions:
    1. Will technology in education obliterate the relationship between teachers and learners?
    2. Will technology in education destroy the relationship between schools and curriculum?


    1. leerobinson84 says:

      in response to your second question…

      Technology is education isn’t destroying the relationship between schools and curriculum. The curriculum we deliver, particularly in post compulsory education, is designed to feed students into industry. If we find that industry shifts, the curriculum we teach will change to reflect this. The curriculum we teach should be reactive, not fixed. However, it could be argued that the curriculum does not shift quickly enough to the changes in industry. The BTEC qualification we deliver at work was written in 2010, the new specification comes in next year. It could be argued that the qualification specification, the curriculum, needs to be changed on a more regular basis. In music technology, 2 years is a long time, 6 years is an era. How often do you think the curriculum should be changed to reflect industry needs? Should it be changed more often for vocational subjects than for academic subjects?

      Liked by 1 person

  9. ursubaba says:

    I agree with you Leerobinson84 that the curriculum needs constant update to meet up with the vast development of technologies in education.


  10. zhambil says:

    In my opinion, The goal of using technology in education is the survival of education. And literacy of technology for teachers is the key to keep up with the worlds’ challenges!


  11. osamaalarabi says:

    Hi all,
    It seems that I am late, but we have a saying back home ‘ to finish last is always better than not to finish at all’

    What is the goal of technology in education?

    the simple answer is to enhance the teaching and learning process. Technology is used as tool in education while bravely, teachers are still standing delivering the sessions using the traditional face to face method. Amazingly,Technology provides us with powerful tools which leads our imaginations to high expectation and a future which Frightening but beautiful like riding a roller coaster.

    Educational technology researchers always had an ambitious dreams. Sometimes it only aims at increased efficiency or effectiveness of current practises, but frequently it aims at pedagogical change, however, in some occasions, it aims at changing the role of educators from teachers to mentors.

    Still, I will always ask this question ‘ What is the goal of technology in education?


  12. Ling Bi says:

    Nowadays, technology booming has deeply integrated into the education at different levels. In addition to the Internet, which is a huge resource for almost all subjects, a series of new techniques, from the traditional PowerPoint, projector, to online video, simulation software and different multi-medias, has been continually introduced for education purpose.

    Obviously, the technology in last decade mainly focused on increasing teaching efficiency by replacing blackboard writing in class with the PPT or notes that are prepared ahead. We must say, they have provided great contribution to our education and are still now dominated in lots of schools/universities.

    However…most of the new technology today, is focus on students’ firsthand experiences and try to increase the interests of the course. For example, Ocoee School’s in USA has employed 3D classroom technology, where students learn the science by some 3D image or video though some special holographic glasses. Teachers there give the feedback that the students are much more focus and are really pay attention to what is being put in front of them. Some students also say that they are able to get the concept very fast through this fantastic experience.

    Therefore, I believe, the core for our modern technology used for education can be summarized just by one word, “experience”. This would be the mainstream for education in future I guess.


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